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Since late 2017, Cabo Delgado Province has seen the development of a nascent insurgency that has adversely affected security across North-east Cabo Delgado Province including Palma District (where the Project is located) and the communities in the immediate vicinity of the Project. These attacks have been mostly coastal and have gradually migrated west and south including Mocimboa de Praia, Macomia and Quissanga Districts. In response to the insecurity a progressive increase in the deployment of Host Government Security Forces in Cabo Delgado Province, Palma District and in communities on the Afungi Peninsula has occurred.

Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (VPSHR)

Established in 2000, the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights (VPSHR) initiative was established by a group of States, NGOs and extractive companies. The set of principles issued by this multi-stakeholder initiative guides oil, gas, and mining companies on providing security for their operations in a manner that respects human rights. Specifically, the Voluntary Principles guide companies in conducting a comprehensive human rights risk assessment in their engagement with public and private security providers to ensure human rights are respected in the protection of company facilities and premises.

The Project considers compliance with international human rights standards in its security operations and its business partners as a priority.


Security MOU

In March 2019, TEPMA1 (as Operator on behalf of the Project) and MRV (as Operator on behalf of the Area 4 project) signed a Security MOU with the Mozambican Ministry of National Defense (MDN) and Ministry of the Interior (MINT). The MOU was amended in July 2020.

The MOU provides for the deployment of personnel and their logistical support with the aim of ensuring the security of Project operations, the Project workforce and communities residing in the broader project area of operations. Collectively the forces assigned under the auspices of the MOU are identified as a Joint Task Force (JTF). In accordance with the MOU, the JTF is responsible for coordinating defensive security of the Project activities on the Project footprint on the Afungi Peninsula and across the broader Project area of operations.

Importantly, the MOU stipulates adherence to key guidelines including the VPSHR, Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials and Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials.

Beyond the above description pertaining to the Security MOU, TEPMA1 also:

  • Ensures copies of the VPSHR and relevant policies are shared with each level of the JTF
  • Facilitated translation of the VPSHR into Portuguese and Swahili and ensured their availability to key stakeholders including local government and affected communities
  • Ensures that all JTF assigned to the Project area of operations participate in VPSHR training
  • Supports efforts to raise the capacity and professionalism of all private security forces (PSC as per the VPSHR) in ways consistent with the World Bank Group – Performance Standards and other internationally accepted best practices
  • Develops Information, Education and Communication (IEC) material to support broad-based awareness, understanding and reinforce behaviours on an ongoing basis

TEPMA1 relations with Mozambican public security forces will always be transparent and be based on respect of human rights. All relationships with Mozambique’s security forces will be conducted to the highest ethical and legal standards. TEPMA1 does not make payments for information about individuals or communities, nor for other unauthorized services, to members of the security forces. Routine coordination with the security forces is permitted but must always be professional in nature, in accordance with law and the Security MOU. Such interactions will be fully recorded and reported to TEPMA1 management.

Community-based security plan

TEPMA1 recognises that the development of the Project may be associated with changes in the security context and thus the security of individuals, households and communities within the Project Area of Influence. Such changes may be anticipated to impact directly on human security and on the ability of individuals, households and communities to go about their day-to-day lives.

To manage such potential impact, a Community-based Security Plan (CBSP) has been developed. The purpose of the CBSP is to establish a framework for the identification, assessment and management of Project-related security risks and impacts on the security of individuals, households and communities within the Project Area of Influence and thereby ensure that Project operations are secure and that human rights are respected and preserved throughout the Project life cycle. A key aspect of CBSP implementation is to ensure meaningful consultation of Project-Affected Communities with regard to security and safety of the individuals, households and communities.

The key objectives of the Community-based Security Plan are:

  • To introduce a strategic multi-stakeholder approach to community-based security (CBS) that pro-actively identifies, assesses and manages evolving area-wide security and security risks and their impacts on livelihoods
  • To promote local area security through close liaison between the JTF and local communities
  • To identify protective solutions to identified threats within the immediate communities outside the project footprint
  • To design, plan and implement component programs to address identified risks and impacts on community security, with the direct involvement and consultation of the impacted communities

The plan has been developed to meet good international industry practice, specifically IFC Performance Standard 4 on Community Health, Safety, and Security.

Guiding principles

A CBS framework views community and Project security holistically, arguing that:

  • The framework for Project security must explicitly include communities within the Project Area of Influence and build a security network in which stakeholders recognise that security is a common objective and a shared responsibility.
  • From a community perspective community security encompasses the physical security of people, household and communities and nurturing of a positive relationship/disposition between the Project and the population; and,
  • As such community security combines consideration of the current situation and the medium-to-long term trends in the evolving socio-economic context (and the extent to which the project can shape and influence this context).


Implementation of the CBSP will be driven by the Project’s Security and Stakeholder Engagement functions working together with the JTF and project-affected communities.  A position of community-based security adviser was created to manage implementation of the plan.